In the first days and weeks after childbirth, a new mother goes through a variety of emotions. She may feel many wonderful feelings including awe, joy and bliss. She may also experience difficult feelings, including sadness. Sad feelings and crying bouts that follow childbirth are known as the “baby blues.” The baby blues are common and tend to decrease within a week or two. This type of sadness is often attributed to the dramatic hormonal changes that follow childbirth.
Around one in seven women will experience something more extreme than the typical baby blues. Women that give birth and struggle with sadness, anxiety or worry for several weeks or more may have postpartum depression (PPD). While the baby blues tend to pass quickly, PPD can be long-lasting and severely affect a woman’s ability to get through her daily routine.
What are the signs and symptoms of postpartum depression?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), up to 20 percent of new mothers experience one or more symptoms of postpartum depression. Similar to other types of depression, PPD can include a number of symptoms:
Feeling down or depressed for most of the day for several weeks or more
Feeling distant and withdrawn from family and friends
A loss of interest in activities (including sex)
Changes in eating and sleeping habits
Feeling tired most of the day
Feeling angry or irritable
Having feelings of anxiety, worry, panic attacks or racing thoughts
Postpartum depression symptoms may start in the first few weeks following childbirth. Sometimes, symptoms of PPD do not begin until months after birth.
Postpartum psychosis is a related mental health condition that can also develop after childbirth. This rare and serious condition includes symptoms of hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that aren’t there), paranoia, and, at times, thoughts of harming one’s self or others. Some mothers have frequent thoughts about harming their children.
If you are experiencing signs of postpartum depression or postpartum psychosis, please tell someone. These conditions can be effectively treated and often respond best when treatment is started right away.
What causes postpartum depression?
A number of factors can lead to postpartum depression. Women with a history of depression and other mental health conditions face a higher risk of PPD. The following factors can also increase one’s risk:
Hormonal changes that follow childbirth
Emotional stressors, including financial strain, job changes, illness, or the death of a loved one
Changes in social relationships, or lack of a strong support network
Raising a child with special needs or an infant that is challenging to care for
Having a family history of mental health issues
While some women are predisposed to experiencing postpartum depression, PPD can affect anyone, including women who experience a normal delivery and give birth to a healthy child.
Since a personal history of depression can increase the risk of postpartum depression, let your doctor know if you have struggled with depression or anxiety in the past. By taking special precautions, you may be able to reduce your risk of developing PPD.
How is postpartum depression treated?
If you are having symptoms of postpartum depression, talk to your doctor or a mental health professional. Your doctor may recommend that you meet regularly with a counselor or that you start taking antidepressant medications. Often, both types of treatment are recommended. While PPD does, at times, go away on its own, symptoms usually go away more quickly with the help of medication and talk therapy.
Lifestyle changes can also help to reduce some symptoms of postpartum depression. The following strategies may help you manage the increased stress that accompanies new parenthood:
Getting enough sleep
Finding time to exercise
Surrounding yourself with a supportive network of family and friends
Eating regular, nourishing meals
Asking others to watch your child so that you can have a much-needed break
Also, many hospitals offer support groups for new mothers. Staffed by women’s health experts, this is a great place to share your feelings in a safe, supportive place with other women who understand what you are going through. Ask your doctor about new mother support groups in your town.
You can take steps to feel better
The adjustment to motherhood can be very stressful as you learn to navigate your new role, balancing care for yourself and an infant (and possibly other children and family members). This can be demanding, exhausting and overwhelming. If you are a new mom with feelings of anxiety or depression, you may even feel guilty or ashamed. It is important to know that postpartum depression is not your fault. Postpartum depression is a medical condition that can be treated. By sharing your feelings with a professional, you will be on your way to making positive changes that will have a big impact on your daily well-being.
Christiane Blanco-Oilar, Ph.D. offers compassionate psychological services for individuals and couples therapy Fort Lauderdale. I enjoy working with individuals and couples going through life transitions, relationship challenges or identity exploration, or those experiencing grief and loss, depression, anxiety, postpartum depression and eating disorders. My goal is to help you recognize, understand and have compassion for how you may have developed less-than-ideal ways of dealing with specific areas of your life.
By Arnold Lieber, MD
Mayo Clinic: PPD
APA: PPD http://www.apa.org/pi/women/resources/reports/postpartum-dep.aspx
CDC: PPD http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/depression/